Friday, March 6, 2009


Zoonosis is diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa is a new threat to human life in the world. Various facts have shown that the zoonosis potential harm far greater than if the loss due to war. Zoonosis in the development of the last few years, a sign will be the presence of a death threat for mankind. If not be a comprehensive change in the pattern zoonosis can continue to appear and spread across the boundaries. This situation makes the world become more concerned.

Zoonosis is divided 2 kind as "emerging and re-emerging diseases."

'Emerging zoonoses' disease is a a new zoonosis appears, can occur anywhere in the world, and its impact potential to become so severe.

While the 're-emerging zoonoses' disease is a zoonosis that has emerged in the past, but will show marked increased again at this time.

Emerging zoonoses' arose in the last 20 years are :

1. Ebola virus, are characterized by transmission from an unknown host (possibly bats) to humans or nonhuman primates, dog
3. Nipah virus - detected in pigs, other domestic and wild animals.
4. rift valley fever (RVF), affects domestic animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels) and humans.
5. alveolar echinococcosis, found in foxes, coyotes, dogs, and cats
6. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) the etiology is unknown, community transmission of SARS: People who come from the People's Republic of China (China's major countries and Hong Kong); Hanoi, Vietnam, and Singapore.
7. monkeypox , cacar monyet
8. highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) / flu burung – birds/unggas
9. hantavirus pulmonary síndrome Рthrough tifus/rodentia
10. West Nile fever (di Amerika Serikat), lyme disease, the birds, especially wild birds that are not in a closed cage
11. haemolytic uremic syndrome (Escherichiacoli serotipe O157:H7) , normally E. coli located in both the human alimentary tract and animals, but the E. coli O157 H: 7 is virulen strain that originated from animals and cattle sheep.
12. Hendra virus which is passed on by horses

Occurrence of the 're-emerging zoonoses' triggered by climate, habitat, population density factors that affect the employer, pathogenic or vectors. Often cause natural increase and decrease disease activity in a geographic area and during various periods of time.

Diseases included in the 're-emerging zoonoses' are :

1. rabies vectors that have a role in disease transmission is a dog, and wild animals such as monkeys, bats and so forth.
2. infeksi virus Lyssa, on dogs, cats, and a contagious animal
4. virus Marburg from Primate origin of animals from Africa
5. bovine tuberculosis, is a chronic bacterial disease of cattle that occasionally affects other species of mammals. This disease is a significant zoonosis that can spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of unpasteurized milk.
6. brucella sp pada satwa liar / tularemia, is highly virulent for humans and domestic rabbits
8. leptospirosis, on rodents
Zoonosis Diseases in Indonesia

1. rabies
2. √°ntrax, on herbivora-herbivora the wild, animals herbivora especially cattle, sheep, goats, and always ended in death. Next target horses and pigs. Omnivora this group of animals can survive so that more patients survived in part from the death. The attack on the chicken, there has never been a report. Based on the research for this has been done, in humans, reported the mortality rate reached 18 percent (from 100 cases, 18 patients died).
3. avian influenza, prevention - must kept birds with food and pens clean, kept sanitation and hygienical
4. salmonellosis , caused by tired, the food is not healthy, so easy to attack Salmonella bacteria. Most persons infected with salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps; 12 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts 3 to 7 days; most affected persons recover without treatment
5. brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.
6. schistosomiasis, which are released by freshwater snails, penetrate the skin of people in the water.
7. cysticercosis/taeniasis, The adult worm lives in the intestine of humans. These humans shed the proglottids containing the eggs in their faeces.
8. tuberculosis, Like the common cold, it spreads through the air. Only people who are sick with TB in their lungs are infectious. When infectious people cough, sneeze, talk or spit, they propel TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air. A person needs only to inhale a small number of these to be infected.
9. leptospirosis,
10. toxoplasmosis, The parasite infects most genera of warm-blooded animals, including humans, but the primary host is the felid (cat) family.
11. Japanese encephalitis, Babi - Japanese Encephalitis (JE) through mosquito vector
12. streptococosis/staphylococosis, dan
13. clostridium (tetanus).


According to a report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that states that more than 250 Foodborne Disease (a disease transmitted through food). Most diseases are infeksius caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and prion that can be transferred through food and not a few of them are Foodborne zoonosis (animal disease that is transmitted to humans through food).

Zoonosis diseases associated with food security (food borne disease) in Indonesia are camphylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigella, Yersinia, verocyto toxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), and listeriosis. Zoonosis diseases exotic to Indonesian is bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), nipah / Hendra virus, ebola, and rift valley fever (RVF).